Currently, the main shipments of ASML are nxe:3400b and 3400c, and their numerical aperture (NA) is 0.33, and the availability of 3400c with a date of closer has reached about 90.
It is expected that nxe:3600d will be delivered by the end of this year. The crystal circular flux at 30mjcm2 is 160 pieces, which is 18 higher than 3400c, and the accuracy of matching set of machine is also increased. It is expected to be the main support for the future TSMC and Samsung 3nm process.
After 3600d, the three generation lithography machines planned by ASML are next, exe:5000 and EXE:5200 , which starts with exe:5000, the numerical aperture increases to 0.55, but it will wait for delivery later in 2022.
Since it takes two years for the photolithography to complete the training from delivery to configuration, the large-scale application of 0.55na will wait until 2025-2026. The service should be 2nm or 1nm of TSMC.
0.55na has too many advantages over 0.33na, including higher contrast, lower cost of graphic exposure, higher production efficiency, etc.
Of course, silicon wafer and exposure room approach the physical limit, which is also a challenge that can not be underestimated. Nowadays 5nm7nm lithography machine already needs 100000 parts and 40 containers. However, the lithography machine in 1nm era is about twice as large as 3nm, which can be imagined.